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Ionically assisted Fuel Cell™

inventor Bruce A. Perreault

The Nu Energy Cell





















The unique radiant energy cell was formally called "capture capacitor." The capture capacitor is essentially a fuel cell powered by ionically generated ozone. Its design also utilizes optinum cathode and anode materials. This type of cell is both energy generator and storage cell all wrapped into one.

In its present state of development, an ionically assisted fuel cell is a highly efficient, high-power density, compact power device that creates no toxic materials, high temperatures, or noise. It has a long life expectancy, and its price will be very competitive to what is now available.

Applications

These attributes are just what is needed in lap-top computers, boats, campers, cell phones, and thousands of other applications. It is not surprising that scientists and engineers have been trying to come up with more practical fuel cell innovations.

The Chemistry

The fuel cell is not a new concept; the first cell was built in 1839 by W. R. Grove. Now more than ever, the growing demand for a power source with the features of the fuel cell has brought great attention to it, and attempts have been made to design and build fuel cells that will generate enough power per unit volume to make them practical.

Basically, a fuel cell is an electrochemical transducer for the conversion of chemical energy into electrical power. The fundamental principle is the same as a simple flashlight or car battery, except that the fuel is typically hydrogen and the oxidant is air.

Ionically Assisted Fuel Cell Operating Principle

As oxygen (O3) is genenerated it enters the cell, it is absorbed by the cathode electrode. This molecule reacts with the water molecules in the electrolyte that is typically KOH + H2O, resulting in negatively charged hydroxyl (OH-) ions and hydrogen peroxide. In this process the cathode loses electrons and becomes positively charged.

The hydroxyl ions migrate through the electrolyte and react with hydrogen gas contained in the opposite anode electrode, producing water (H2O) as a by-product. The anode receives electrons through this reaction, and when an electrical load is connected between the electrodes, electrons will flow to the cathode from the negatively charged anode.

Ionically Assisted Reaction (IAR)  power supply used to exite our fuel cells into generating electrical power.

Ozone Cells -How They Work

Structure

The structure of an aluminum/ozone cell is very simple. A piece of aluminum is immersed in an electrolyte near a porous carbon electrode. This porous carbon electrode is exposed to ozone on it's outer surface, and the electrolyte on it's inner surface. This is shown in the diagram below.



ozone.gif (2004 bytes)

 

The hydroxyl (OH-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) electrolyte solution is generated as power is needed. This is accomplished by an external high-voltage circuit. Pure oxygen can be supplied by an external reservoir, or as a concentrated hydrogen peroxide reserve situated somewhere within the valve structure.

You will be able to purchase these special cells from Nu Energy Fuels, Inc. Using these cells it will be quite simple to make a battery powered by ozone for yourself.

More Chemistry

Hydroxyl OH- ions are present when hydrogen peroxide vapor is ionized by the action of the electronically ionized valve. The aluminum reacts with hydroxyl OH- ions to form aluminum hydroxide and releases three electrons. The reaction is:

Al + 3OH- yields.gif (833 bytes) Al (OH)3 + 3e-

These electrons form the electric current produced by the valve. The equation above shows why aluminum/ozone cells are so good. The valiancy of aluminum is three, so three electrons are released. Since three electrons are released for each aluminum atom we get a lot of electricity from our valve!

O3 + H2O yields.gif (833 bytes) H2O2 + O1 : O1 + H2O yields.gif (833 bytes) OH-

At the porous electrode the water in the electrolyte reacts with ozone supplied to the outer cylinder, and the water readily absorbs oxygen becoming hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl. Electrons are released due to the dissociation of the water molecule. The electrons are absorbed by the aluminum electrode.

Cations are formed at the carbon electrode, and so this electrode is called the cathode. It attracts negative electrons, and so is the positive terminal of the battery. Yes, the cathode is the positive electrode!

The electrons absorbed by the aluminum electrode (the anode) travel through the external circuit connected to the cell, and both the above reactions carry on until the aluminum is used up, or the circuit is broken. The overall reaction is:

4Al + 6H2O2 yields.gif (833 bytes) 4Al(OH)3

Applications

The energy density of the aluminum/ozone valve is excellent, even better than the lithium cell. There are no side reactions that take place between the electrolyte and the aluminum. There is no corrosion of the aluminum. In a normal aluminum/air cell corrosion begins as soon as the aluminum is in contact with the electrolyte. This is because small amounts of hydrogen gas are produced. The reactions are very slow, but a great amount of corrosion takes place in the typical aluminum/air battery. In other words, the battery has a very short shelf life. However, the aluminum/ozone battery does not suffer this problem where the electrolyte is a function of the ozone, and is present only when power is required. This type of battery is typically called a reserve battery, and it is predicted that the aluminum/ozone battery will have great success in the energy market.

Large aluminum/ozone batteries will be used as back-up power supplies and could very well be adapted as the main power supply. Compared to lead/acid batteries they store about ten times as much energy in a given volume, and can be recharged by replacing the valves, that in a well designed battery need not be too difficult. The valves are then sent back to the factory to be recharged with fresh aluminum. With a hydrogen peroxide electrolyte the open circuit voltage of the cell is about 1.9 volts, but the normal operating voltage is about 1.5 or 1.6 volts.

Such batteries will be produced by Nu Energy Fuels, Inc.

The IARC - How it Compares

The structure of an ionically assisted cell (IARC) is very simple, yet is unique. The energy density of the IARC is excellent, even better than the lithium cell. There are no side reactions that take place between the electrolyte and the plates. There is no corrosion. In conventional cells corrosion begins as soon as they are manufactured. This is because small amounts of hydrogen gas are generated.The reactions are very slow, but a great amount of corrosion takes place in the typical cells now in the market place. In other words, they have a limited shelf life. However, the IARC does not suffer this problem. This type of fuel cell is typically called a reserve cell, and it is predicted that Nu Energy Fuel Cells will have great success in the energy marketplace.

IARC batteries will be used as back-up power supplies and could very well be adapted as the main power supply. Compared to aluminum/air batteries they generate and store store about ten times as much energy in a given volume. Systems using this unique technology will be made available through Nu Energy Fuels, Inc. (NEFI)

Nu Energy Horizons Web Research
Nu Energy Horizons, P. O. Box 22, Rumney, New Hampshire 03266-0022 USA

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see related page of the Plate forming process

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